This article is divided into two main parts and aims, on the one hand, at explaining the origins and chronology of the phenomenon called the "diary", and on the other hand, at the sociological aspects of its use and role in social research. It intends to shed a new light on the historical, methodological, epistemological and ethical challenges facing the social scientist when choosing to use diaries for qualitative knowledge of social life.
Analyzing longitudinal qualitative data: the application of trajectory and recurrent cross-sectional approachesby Daniel Grossoehme, Ellen Lipstein
Longitudinal qualitative research methods can add depth and understanding to health care research, especially on topics such as chronic conditions, adherence and changing health policies. In this manuscript we describe when and how to undertake two different applied approaches to analyzing longitudinal qualitative data: a recurrent cross sectional approach and a trajectory approach.
There has been considerable recent interest in methods of determining sample size for qualitative research a priori, rather than through an adaptive approach such as saturation. Extending previous literature in this area, we identify four distinct approaches to determining sample size in this way: rules of thumb, conceptual models, numerical guidelines derived from empirical studies, and statistical formulae.
We explore the clear links between data analysis and evidence. We argue that transparency in the data analysis process is integral to determining the evidence that is generated. Data analysis must occur concurrently with data collection and comprises an ongoing process of ‘testing the fit’ between the data collected and analysis. We discuss four steps in the process of thematic data analysis: immersion, coding, categorisingand generation of themes.
Priorities, Barries, and Facilitators towards International Guidelines for the Delivery of Supportive Clinical Care during an Ebola Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Surveyby Alex Salam, Peter Horby
The value of an embedded qualitative study in a trial of a second antidepressant for people who had not responded to one antidepressant: understanding the perspectives of patients and practititionersby Carolyn A. Chew-Graham, Thomas Shepherd, Heather Burroughs, Katie Dixon, David Kessler
We report a qualitative study embedded in a trial of second antidepressant for people who had not responded to one antidepressant, exploring the acceptability of a combination of antidepressants from the perspectives of both patients and practitioners, together with experiences of participating in a clinical trial.
In this commentary, I trace the evolution of this trend, illustrating how a reasonable original intent has taken a misguided turn in the context of competing understandings and priorities in health care knowledge development.
Protective parents and permissive children: what qualitative interviews with parents and children can tell us about the feasibility of juvenile idiopathic arthritis trialsby Frances C. Sherratt, Louise Roper, Simon R. Stones, Flora McErlane, Matthew Peak, Michael W. Beresford, Helen Foster, Athimalaipet V. Ramanan, Madeleine Rooney, Eileen Baildam, Bridget Young
Studies involving CYP are advocated in the literature but we are not aware of any early stage feasibility studies that have qualitatively accessed the perspectives of parents and CYP with a long term condition to inform design and conduct of a trial. In the context of a feasibility study to inform the design of a proposed randomised controlled trial of corticosteroid induction regimen in JIA, we explored families’ perspectives on the proposed trial and on JIA trials generally.
Nurses’ perceptions towards the delivery and feasibility of a behaviour change intervention to enhance activity in patients at risk for cardiovascular disease in primary care: a qualitative studyby Heleen Westland, Yvonne Koop, Carin D. Schröder, Marieke J. Schuurmans, P. Slabbers, Jaap C. A. Trappenburg, Sigrid C. J. M. Vervoort
This study aimed to evaluate nurses’ perceptions towards the delivery and feasibility of the Activate intervention.
Including qualitative research in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT): opportunities for nursing researchersby Loredana Sasso, Mark Hayter, Gianluca Catania, Giuseppe Aleo, Milko P Zanini, Annamaria Bagnasco
n this editorial we argue that qualitative research can enhance the quality, rigor and depth of an RCT –but at present this is an opportunity that is frequently missed. We further propose that not only can qualitative research enhance the design and conduct of an RCT it also provides an opportunity for qualitative researchers (often nurse researchers) and research nurses (often not actively involved in undertaking research) to work with medical colleagues to improve the quality of RCT design.
This paper provides a general guide to presenting qualitative research for publication in a way that has meaning for authors and readers, is acceptable to editors and reviewers, and meets criteria for high standards of qualitative research reporting across the board. We discuss the writing of all sections of an article, placing particular emphasis on how you might best present your findings, illustrating our points with examples drawn from previous issues of this Journal.
Generalizability in qualitative research: misunderstandings, opportunities and recommendations for the sport and exercise sciencesby Brett Smith
Generalisation in relation to qualitative research has rarely been discussed in-depth in sport and exercise psychology, the sociology of sport, sport coaching, or sport management journals. Often there is no mention of generalizability in qualitative studies. When generalizability is mentioned in sport and exercise science journals it is often talked about briefly or highlighted as a limitation/weakness of qualitative research.
As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a qualitative analysis.
This article presents a model for quality in qualitative research that is uniquely expansive, yet flexible, in that it makes distinctions among qualitative research’s means (methods and practices) and its ends.
Demonstrating Impact in Participatory Health Research: Reflections of engaging with participatory health researchers from around the globeby Kim Ozano
The Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach and paradigm is gaining ground within implementation and operational research agendas for international health interventions and programmes. The action planning, implementation and reflection stages allow for immediate research uptake and modification.
Knowledge and attitude towards Ebola and Marburg virus diseases in Uganda using quantitative and participatory epidemiology techniquesby Luke Nyakarahuka, Eystein Skjerve, Daisy Nabadda, Doreen Chilolo Sitali, Chisoni Mumba, Frank N. Mwiine5, Julius J. Lutwama, Stephen Balinandi, Trevor Shoemaker, Clovice Kankya
Useful paper which uses mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to consider knowledge and practices around ebola and marburg virus in Uganda
Unintended consequences of the ‘bushmeat ban’ in West Africa during the 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease epidemicby Jesse Bonwitt, Michael Dawson, Martin Kandeh, Rashid Ansumana, Foday Sahr, Hannah Brown, Ann H. Kelly
This interesting article uses qualitative research to consider the impacts of the bushmeat ban, and consider whether illegalising bushmeat had the desired effect. Useful, interesting paper for anyone with an interest in the ebola virus and how to encourage behaviour change.
Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers: A qualitative exploratory studyby Save Kumwenda, El Hadji A Niang, Pauline W Orondo, Pote William, Lateefah Oyinlola, Gedeon N Bongo, Bernadette Chiwona
This interesting study uses questionnaires to ask researchers about how they developed their interests in science, and how we can support young researchers to encourage more research in LMICs
The grounded theory (GT) method is widely applied, yet frequently misunderstood. We outline the main variants of GT and dispel the most common myths associated with GT. We argue that the different variants of GT incorporate a core set of shared procedures that can be put to work by any researcher or team from their chosen ontological and epistemological perspective.
!Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework [of data sharing] that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories."
Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.by Sassy Molyneux, Benjamin Tsofa, Edwine Barasa, Mary Muyoka Nyikuri, Evelyn Wanjiku Waweru, Catherine Goodman, Lucy Gilson
The authors examine the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants.
This editorial discusses a collection of papers examining gender across a range of health policy and systems contexts, from access to services, governance, health financing, and human resources for health.
"In order to facilitate greater engagement with the concept of power among researchers and practitioners in the health systems and policy realm, we share a broad overview of the concept of power, and list 10 excellent resources on power in health policy and systems in low- and middle-income countries, covering exemplary frameworks, commentaries and empirical work. We undertook a two-stage process to identify these resources."
In this paper, we look to clarify the nature, purposes and uses of saturation, and in doing so add to theoretical debate on the role of saturation across different methodologies. We identify four distinct approaches to saturation, which differ in terms of the extent to which an inductive or a deductive logic is adopted, and the relative emphasis on data collection, data analysis, and theorizing.
Experiences of using life histories with health workers in post-conflict and crisis settings: methodological reflectionsby Sophie Witter, Justine Namakula, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Haja Wurie, Sally Theobald, Wilson Mashange, Bandeth Ros, Stephen Buzuzi, Richard Mangwi, Tim Martineau
In this paper, we examine our experience of using life histories to explore health system trajectories coming out of conflict through the eyes of health workers
Challenges to the care of low birthweight babies in rural Southern Malawi: a qualitative study exploring perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workersby Marianne Koenraads, John Phuka, Kenneth Maleta, Sally Theobald, Melissa Gladstone
This paper looks at the infants in Malawi who suffered from low birth weight, and asks the question: how can we improve the outcomes?
Informing Culturally Appropriate Data-Sharing Practice in Vietnam.
A Qualitative Study of Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Data Sharing Among Research Staff and Community Representatives in Thailand.
This Journal of Medical Ethics article discusses governance around social sciences and ethical review
Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine......
This useful article examines the field of 'global health' through four different social theories, providing useful insights into different ways to approach global health study. Certainly a must read for social scientists working in this area!
Women's groups practising participatory learning and action to improve maternal and newborn health in low-resource settings: a systematic review and meta-analysisby Prost et al
This review assessed the effects of women's groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with usual care, on birth outcomes in low-resource settings. With the participation of at least a third of pregnant women and adequate population coverage, women's groups practising participatory learning and action are a cost-effective strategy to improve maternal and neonatal survival in low-resource settings.
Sarah Drew shares her research diary about conducting ethnographic fieldwork in Malawi as part of a Clubfoot study.
This helpful article outlines gender analysis and how it can be incorporated into health systems research, and how to explore the issues that may arise from this.
This article, published in Oxfordjournals.org, discusses the issue of intersectionality in health inequities, defniing the issueand directing the reader to helpful resources on the topic.
This useful article in Grounded Theory Review is a useful read for anyone engaging in coding, whatever approach you're using.
Podoconiosis is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care.
Literature: The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: A Nested Pilot of Photovoice Participatory Research Methodologyby Jane Ardrey, Nicola Desmond, Rachel Tolhurst, Kevin Mortimer
In January 2015, the use of Photovoice as a participatory research methodology was piloted at the Cooking and Pneumonia Study Chikhwawa site in Malawi. Photovoice is a photographic technique that allows communities (including women and marginalised groups) to share knowledge about their perspectives and priorities.
Communication about Children's Clinical Trials As Observed and Experienced: Qualitative Study of Parents and Practitionersby Victoria Ewing
Cognitive mapping is a participatory research methodology that documents, in visual form, a construct of the local environment in which people live and work. The authors adapted this method to provide detailed data about study locales to inform recruitment and retention strategies for HIV prevention community based clinical trials.
Understanding the investigators: a qualitative study investigating the barriers and enablers to the implementation of local investigator-initiated clinical trials in Ethiopiaby Sam Franzen
New BMJ Open article: “Understanding the investigators: a qualitative study investigating the barriers and enablers to the implementation of local investigator-initiated clinical trials in Ethiopia” This article was written by the research team at Global Health Trials in collaboration with researchers from Ethopia, Sri Lanka and Peru. The research was initiated in response to the low volume of clinical trials conducted by investigators in Low and Middle Income Countries.
Towards an Understanding of Disengagement from HIV Treatment and Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualitative Studyby Norma C. Ware, Monique A. Wyatt, Elvin H. Geng, Sylvia F. Kaaya, Oche O. Agbaji, Winnie R. Muyindike, Guerino Chalamilla, Patricia A. Agaba
Why Do Women Not Use Antenatal Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studiesby Jai K Das
This study informs the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies.